Programming is a system of writing down instructions to a computer in a language that is understood by the computer. It is also a process of solving a problem using a set of step-by-step instructions. A programmer or coder is a person who writes these instructions in a programming language. The programming languages used for business purposes are generally high level languages. They are basically general purpose languages and can be used to write programs with requirements from any field.
In the early days, when computers were still very slow, programming languages were quite primitive, and they were used mainly to perform arithmetic operations with numbers. With the advancement of technology, the uses of computers have increased tremendously, and there is a need for a wide range of software to perform a variety of tasks. Therefore, more sophisticated programming languages have been developed to cater to the various needs of software including networking, database, etc. Some of these languages are:
a) C++: This language is used mainly for coding applications that run on large computers. It is very complex and powerful. It was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs in the late 1980s.
b) Java: This language was developed by Sun Microsystems in 1994. It is similar to C++ but is simpler to use. Java was designed to be platform independent, i.e., it can be used on any platform like Windows, UNIX, MAC, etc. It is also very secure. Java is used to create applets (small programs) for web browsers like Firefox, Internet Explorer, etc.
c) PHP: PHP stands for Hypertext Preprocessor. It is an open source server-side scripting language that handles all aspects of web development like creating dynamic web pages, e-commerce websites, etc. This language enables users to program the web page without the need of any HTML knowledge. The code written in PHP is executed by an interpreter which creates an HTML document as output.
d) C#: C# stands for ‘C sharp’. It is an object oriented programming language based on the C++ programming language. It was developed by Microsoft in conjunction with the .NET initiative. The .NET initiative aims to unite Microsoft software products into one platform that can communicate easily with each other.
The future looks bright for programmers since computers are getting smarter every day and are able to perform many complex tasks without any human intervention. There are many jobs available for programmers in India as well as abroad. However, it is necessary to have good knowledge of coding languages to get jobs in this field. For instance, jobs are very limited for people who know only basic coding languages like Python because their skills are not required by many employers.